February 2016 Scholastic Action Shooting Program match

On February 6th, 2016 I worked as a range officer for the  Scholastic Action Shooting Program (SASP) Winter Regional match held in College Station each year.   The match is based on the classic Steel Challenge format: 5 plates, 5 runs, throw out the slowest run, fastest total time wins. One SASP stage called “Go Fast” is shown in the photo.

Go Fast stage

The biggest differences is that all the runs start from low ready instead of the holster, and the main awards are for 4 person teams.   The match is for young shooters, from 12 years old through undergraduate college age. It’s set up with multiple divisions for junior high, high school and college, and 9mm and .22 categories also.   It’s one of the events supported by the MidwayUSA Foundation.

Penny and I helped local IPSC shooter Kevin Jimmerson get the Texas A&M Corps of Cadets Marksmanship Unit started in 2012, and with great support from TAMU, local shooters & ranges, gun industry sponsors, and a lot of hard work by the team members and coaches, the team now competes in 3-Gun, Scholastic Pistol, Trap & Skeet, and Practical Shooting, and hosts a big SASP match each year.

The match started with TAMU System Chancellor John Sharp making some opening remarks to the crowd, encouraging all those of high school age to consider attending Texas A&M University and joining the Corps of Cadets.  The Corps supported the match with cadets painting targets, managing traffic, and assisting with scoring. I had 3 cadets working for me on the stage I was running.  Parsons Mounted Calvary brought their ceremonial cannon out also.  The Texas State Rifle Association Foundation provided some financial support for the match, and TSRA President Doug DuBois spoke to the crowd after Chancellor Sharp.

This year’s match, held at the CCC Shooting Complex, was the biggest yet, with teams from all over the US: from Florida to Washington state, attending.


All 3 military academies sent teams and there were many Texas teams as well.



I really enjoy working youth shooting events. It’s great to see all the young competitors handling their guns safely and responsibly, shooting fast and looking good.   The future of our gun rights depend on them. When politicians and pundits talk about all the problems with “kids and guns” – they’ve never met these young men and women.

The TAMU team beat the Army, Navy and Air Force academy teams.  There were a lot of winners in the different divisions (centerfire and rimfire, junior, senior and college).  The match results are here for those that want all the details.



Another benefit of legal open carry

This April 2015 article about a man shooting himself in the bathroom of a Chick-Fil-A that popped up on multiple Facebook feeds today got me thinking about open carry.  Let me explain…

The biggest practical benefits of the legalization of open carry in Texas come from no longer having to worry about getting in trouble for failure to conceal for brief periods where your activities or weather conditions cause you to expose all or part of your gun.   One of those activities is using a public bathroom.  With open carry legalized, the problem is solved.  Keep the gun holstered, don’t handle it, and don’t worry about somebody seeing it.

If your gun is at risk of falling out of your holster when you lower your pants, you need a better holster that offers more retention.  Having your gun fall out of your holster in public is embarrassing, could be a violation of the law (in places where open carry is not allowed), and worst, could result in injury or death.

Unfortunately,  more than 400 businesses in Texas have chosen to post 30.07 signs banning open carry, which actually denies the armed citizen the “common sense” solution of simply leaving the gun holstered.  In order to keep the gun concealed, that typically requires taking the gun out of the holster and setting it somewhere, finding some way to cover it up, or hanging it on the hook on the door.  There are problems with each of those options, and sometimes they  result in negative outcomes including negligent discharges and forgotten guns:





The simplest solutions to this problem are:

  1. Use the bathroom in places where open carry is allowed.
  2. Use the bathroom in places where only one person at a time can go in, and you can lock the door. Even if open carry is not allowed, in that situation you have taken the necessary steps to ensure that your gun is “not openly discernible to the ordinary observation of a reasonable person”, which is the legal definition of concealed in Texas.
  3. Pocket carry, purse carry or off-body carry. (All these methods have their own problems related to security of the gun and speed of access, but do offer an advantage in this specific situation).

When none of those options are available, this article from the Alien Gear website (and the linked video) offers some good general advice on this topic.


Lessons from an accidental discharge

(guest blog post submitted by assistant instructor Dave Reichek)

Yes, there IS such a thing as an accidental discharge! We had one on the range during an advanced pistol class this weekend.

I’ve read opinions that there is no such thing as an accidental discharge, only negligent discharges. In general, I find this is mostly true. 99% of the time, someone’s finger was on the trigger when it wasn’t supposed to be – that certainly qualifies as a negligent discharge. We’ve often heard – and warned students about – foreign objects getting caught in the trigger guard and causing the firearm to discharge when it is being holstered. I’m of two minds on this one –drawstring cords, poorly designed or maintained holsters, etc., are all problems that should be relatively easy to foresee if someone looks at their gear, clothing, etc. with a critical eye towards prevention, thus one could argue some degree of negligence when one or more of these circumstances results in an unintentional discharge. However, how many times has that “foreign object” been a part of the trigger mechanism itself? I’d wager not very many at all.

The students in this particular class (Defensive Pistol Skills 2) were experienced and had all taken multiple KR Training courses. The student who experienced the accidental discharge was using a Gen 4 Glock 34 with an aftermarket trigger installed (Pyramid Trigger) and an OWB paddle holster. During the drill, he had several misfires occur, which he cleared and continued with the drill. When he holstered, with finger off the trigger, the pistol discharged in the holster.

The round hit a few inches from his foot, because his OWB holster was angled such that the muzzle was pointed away from his body. When I saw it happen, my first reaction was to reach for the TQ in my pocket – thankfully we didn’t need it! Upon investigation, what we thought was a piece of the holster on the ground turned out to be a piece of the trigger – the center piece of the now-familiar two piece trigger designs where the center portion of the trigger has to be pushed flush with the rest of the trigger face before the trigger can be actuated to fire the gun.

I’m not familiar with this particular aftermarket trigger, but the grooves on the pin, the hexagonal inset on it, and the grooves on the trigger piece lead me to believe this is a screw which somehow worked its way out. I believe this allowed the center trigger part to work its way loose and get sideways in the trigger guard, catching the edge of the holster mouth when the student re-holstered and causing the accidental discharge.

Lessons learned and observations from this incident:

  • If the student was using an IWB or AIWB holster, it’s more likely an injury would have resulted (NOT a knock on AIWB/IWB holsters, as I use both – just an observation). If you do use an AIWB holster, be extra diligent to check for possible obstructions, holster slowly, and push your hips forward before and while you are holstering so that you are not at risk to put a bullet through your femoral artery if the unthinkable happens.
  • Regular inspection of your firearms before and after each use is a really good idea! How many of us REALLY do that? I don’t know how long this screw took to work its way out sufficiently to fail, but I can’t discount the possibility that a pre-class inspection by the student might have prevented it – then again, it might not have. File this under “lessons learned”, not “assignment of blame”.
  • (Karl notes: It’s common in more advanced classes to encourage students to clear malfunctions and get back in the drill quickly, and not to stop and try to diagnose the cause of the malfunction. In this case, clearly it would have been better to stop to figure it out before holstering. In 25 years of teaching this was the first problem of this type that has occurred on the firing line. My personal takeaway from this incident is to start advising students to pause before holstering, if they have had malfunctions, and assess their gear.)
  • Range safety and pre-class safety briefing – even on a class comprised of students with a higher-than-average level of skill – is important. We had a trauma kit on the range, a larger kit back in the classroom, and my TQ was in my pocket on the firing line. Students were briefed on where a phone was, where coordinates to the range were posted, and a student in class with an EMT certification was identified. As an instructor, student, or just “shooter on the range”, you just can’t predict when an accident, whether caused by negligence or not, will happen. Be prepared!
  • There is an aftermarket device made specifically for Glocks that can prevent this kind of accidental discharge, and might be worthy of consideration by any Glock owners reading this blog post. You can read more about it here:

January 2016 Open Carry Contest

Starting January 1, 2016, open carry of handguns will be legal in Texas, making us no different from 44 other states in which open carry was already legal.


Based on social media postings and media articles, it appears these things are going to happen:

  1. Some permit holders who have not been carrying concealed on a regular basis are going to start carrying for the first time, because they can open carry.
  2. Many businesses that allow concealed carry are going to prohibit open carry.
  3. The majority of people who have been carrying concealed for years will continue to carry concealed as they have always done.
  4. Some who have not carried concealed out of unfounded paranoia about getting in trouble for “printing” will hopefully start carrying concealed.
  5. Some who have been carrying a subcompact or subcaliber gun (again due to “printing” paranoia) will now start carrying a more functional pistol, open or concealed.
  6. A small number of emotional anti-gun activists intend to call 911 every time they see someone open carrying.
  7. Police are going to have a challenging time dealing with all of it — particularly the unclear language in the law defining what an acceptable holster is.


The purpose of carrying is not to put on a public fashion show.  The point of carrying is to have appropriate equipment for the task of self-defense available, with the secondary goal of having that equipment be comfortable and tolerable to wear every day.  We recommend:

  • 4″ or 5″ barrel quality semiauto pistol in 9mm, .40 or .45 caliber, holding at least 8 rounds, preferably 10 or more.  Pistol should have a standard factory finish and limited modifications for functional improvement only. More about handgun selection here.
  • an all kydex or all leather inside the waistband holster that uses real belt loops that wrap around the belt, OR
  • an outside the waistband retention holster such as the Safariland ALS or GLS, OR
  • an outside the waistband holster that has tension that can be adjusted using screws
  • carrying a spare magazine

We don’t recommend:

  • Cowboy sixguns, shotshell revolvers (Taurus “Judge”), derringers, HiPoint pistols, AR “pistols”, or any other odd or novelty handgun.
  • Pistols with excessive decoration (bright color or exotic finishes, “Punisher” logos, “Wait for flash” markings, etc.). Imagine a prosecutor showing your gun to a jury during your trial for use of deadly force, and choose your carry gun accordingly.
  • Holsters poorly suited to daily carry.  Nylon “gun buckets”, thin leather holsters that collapse when you draw from them, “gimmick” holsters that do not cover the trigger guard or have to be re-assembled so you can re-holster, holsters with an integral magazine pouch, “drop leg” holsters intended for tactical team use or Airsoft game play, or any other holster that doesn’t hold the gun securely, close to the body, and allow rapid reholstering using only one hand.
  • Wearing your holster in a stupid way.  One very common mistake is wearing a holster designed for behind-the-hip use too far forward. This video explains the problems that causes.  Carrying with your gun behind your back, in line with your spine, is a terrible idea. Access is slow, your ability to stop someone from taking the gun is severely limited, and if you are knocked to the ground wearing the holster, spinal injury is likely.  If you don’t understand proper holster placement or selection, seek out a class, like our Defensive Pistol Skills 1 course, that not only teaches that topic but includes access to loaner holsters that you can use, if your current holster is simply not going to work for you.


Many people, when carrying concealed in public for the first time, get the impression that everyone that looks at them knows they are carrying, and is looking right at their gun.  In reality, the vast majority of people don’t know what to look for and are too distracted with their own tasks or using their phone that they don’t notice much of anything.

If you open carry, odds are good that people will notice, and it will likely change their behavior in any interaction you have with them.  You may get harassed by strangers, or end up in conversations with those in favor of open carry.  You may be approached by police.

By open carrying you make yourself a public ambassador for all gun owners.  Act like an adult. Move slow, be polite, smile.  Assume that anything you do or say in public could end up on YouTube, an anti-gun website, or the news.

Take a cover garment with you

Many business, such as H.E.B. grocery, will allow concealed carry but not open carry.  Anyone that plans to open carry should always have a cover garment in their vehicle to switch from open to concealed as required.


The Open Carry Derp Contest

I am a pessimist and expect that the first 30 days of open carry in Texas could very well provide a parade of derp.  From today until Jan 29th, send me cell phone pics of any of the derp carry choices listed below, or any I’ve missed that you think qualify.  The person that sends me the most pictures before the deadline wins a free slot in the January 30th Open Carry Concepts course. Pictures must show someone carrying the offending gear in public (matches and ranges do not count, but gun shows and OC walks do). I reserve the right to award double or bonus points in cases where the person shown fails in multiple categories.

Oversize: hunting handguns (44 mag, 454 casull, etc.), IPSC Open guns, cowboy guns with 7 1/2 or longer barrels, AR/AK “pistols”, carrying with mags that stick out more than 1-2″ past the gun’s grip, Desert Eagle, two-gun rigs

Bad gun choice: Shotshell revolver (“Judge”), derringers, HiPoint, cowboy sixguns, .22, .25, .32 pocket guns carried in belt holster

Carried wrong: 1911 with hammer down, DA/SA hammer back, belt holster at wrong angle, shoulder holster that causes muzzle to point at people behind you, small of back carry, “holsterless” carry, drop leg holster, mags carried backward (or facing two different directions) in mag pouches, chest rig, more than 2 spare mags, nylon holster, holster with integral mag pouch, any cheap, loose floppy holster or flimsy belt clearly not suited to the weight of what is being carried.

Fashion show: Any gun, holster or clothing item worn primarily for its looks and not its function.  Wearing a “carry permit” badge like it’s a police badge. Any item that would cause a jury to think “gun nut” and not “trained professional” when displayed in court.

If you send us pictures for the contest, we reserve the right to re-use them in other content (blog posts, training materials, etc.). Email contest submission pics to ribo@pkconsolidated.info.  Complaints and political rants will be ignored and deleted.

Comments have been disabled for this post.   You have the freedom to carry whatever you want, wherever you want, within the limits of the new law.  We also have the freedom to point and laugh at you when you embarrass the rest of us in public.

In memory of Ken Ragsdale, Austin music icon

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the main band I played with was the Ken Ragsdale Orchestra. We were a 7 piece “little big band” (keys, bass, drums, trumpet, alto, tenor, bari). All 3 sax players doubled on clarinet. Ken played bari & clarinet, led the band and booked the shows. We worked a lot, mostly at country clubs and events for ballroom dance groups and military retiree events at Bergstrom (when it was an air force base) and Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio.  We played an average of 70-80 shows a year every year I was in the band.

One of the things that made the band interesting was our book. Many of the charts were written in the 50s (or earlier), and most of the “new” charts were written by Johnny Ross, who came from that era and knew how to write in the authentic style those songs required. It was a real education in the history of “hotel” music as well as Big Band era jazz — something most jazz players don’t get the opportunity to learn in depth.

In December 1993 we played 12 shows in 14 days. I recorded all the shows and created a ‘best of’ compilation that’s available for free download here:

I learned a lot playing with Ken – not just about music but about the music business, but also about Texas history (through conversations as well as reading his books). Ken was gifted at building relationships with those that booked us and our audience. He also served as a great role model, showing that it was possible to be a working musician into his 80s and even his 90s, while continuing to write and even pursue new interests. His obituary, describing his very full and accomplished life, is here. He will be missed.

Establishing a Dominance Paradigm – Thoughts and Observations

(This post is contributed by assistant instructor Dave Reichek.    For those interesting in training similar to what is described below, we (KR Training) will be hosting a combo course with Dr. Aprill on June 6-7, 2015 called “Unthinkable: Concepts and Techniques for the Gravest Extreme“, taught by Dr. Aprill, Caleb Causey of Lone Star Medics, and Karl Rehn of KR Training.)

I was fortunate enough to take part in the inagural Establishing a Dominance Paradigm course in January, over 30 hours of combined education instruction by Tom Givens, Craig Douglas (Southnarc), and Dr. William Aprill. The class was a closed enrollment course, restricted to a relatively small number of students who were all familiar with the instructors’ prior coursework and who had demonstrated a high degree of competency.   This would present the instructors with a class of skilled practitioners with which they could induce a high level of stress throughout the class and see how the students fared under pressure.

Tom Givens wrote the following synopsis of the class content in his February 2015 Rangemaster newsletter:

This was a very intensive three-day course taught by Craig Douglas (Southnarc), William Aprill, and Tom Givens, with each trainer concentrating on his particular field of expertise. We had 15 students from literally all over the country, coming from as far away as New York City for this course. Days were long, typically running from 8:30 AM until 7 PM. The training involved classroom work, live fire on the range, and very realistic scenario-based training using Simunitions equipment.

                William April has a unique background, having worked as a deputy sheriff and Deputy US Marshal before becoming a licensed psychologist. He has worked extensively with criminals both in a law enforcement and a mental health capacity. His lectures included a great deal of information on criminal psychology, but there was also a heavy emphasis on the brain physiology of stress and how to control that stress in a crisis. Southnarc put the trainees through a number of scenarios involving various role-play interactions. We had a separate training area with movable walls and furniture which allowed us to set up some very realistic scenarios. On the range, I set up progressively more difficult drills with a lot of issues intended strictly to raise the students’ stress level, and those drills were quite successful in inducing anxiety and stress in the shooters. Both the scenario-based training and the live fire gave the students the opportunity to experience high levels of stress and to use William’s techniques to control that stress and still function. Lynn Givens and Tiffany Johnson, as well as Jack Barrett, our host, joined the primary trainers as role players in the scenarios. We were able to put the students into real -life problems and have them work out their own salvation.

We were specifically asked to not give away too much about the class to avoid “spoiling it” for future classes as it relates to how the stress was induced, but I believe I can share some important points and observations while keeping true to the instructors’ request.

A big focus of the class – probably the primary focus – was the concept of bring cognizant of what your stress level is at any given time. Your stress level can range from detatched or disinterested at the low end, to a complete collapse of response or blind panic at the high end. Somewhere in-between (and this varies by individual) is your own personal “sweet spot” where your performance will be optimal. The instructors presented us with strategies to modulate our stress level in real time, and plenty of opportunities to practice stress management throughout the course.

Dr. Aprill spent a lot of time delving into brain functions and how this effects us during a crisis. The “Reflexive Brain” (“System X” in the Psychology nerd world) has access to over-learned complex muscle movements without the “Thinking Brain” (“System C” in the Psychology nerd world) having to get involved. For example, who hasn’t swerved around an object in the road, and then had to look back in the mirror to see what it was? The Reflexive Brain did all the work before the Thinking Brain even had a chance to get involved. There are numerous stories of the gun just “appearing in their hand” for trained people who found themselves in a dangerous situation. Again, an over-learned activity.

However, this can also cost you everything if your Thinking Brain takes over in the middle of your reaction inappropriately. During the first scenario we ran, I was a role player/actor for the scenario. There was a sudden stimulus (think “someone walking in unexpectedly with a gun in their hand”) and more than one student’s flinch reaction (reactive brain) was HALF of a draw stroke until the Thinking Brain took over and stopped it. Don’t kid yourself, EVERYONE knows what even half of a draw stroke looks like when you do it (If you are going to go for your gun, commit to it!) This interruption of the Reflexive Brain by the Thinking Brain is one example of the considerable amount of “tug-of-war” going on between the Reflexive Brain vs. Thinking Brain during the lifespan of the crisis, and we spent a lot of class time discussing what Dr. Aprill called “cognitive resiliency” – the ability to effective and most adaptively transition from one mode of mind to another.

Another interesting observation from some of Southnarc’s scenarios, and this was even more common than the half-draw reaction… consider a scenario where you make the decision that you are going to comply initially, and if you get into a favorable situation, THEN you will consider taking action. If you are going to comply, comply 100%. If you are going to get on the floor, get ALL THE WAY on the floor. We observed a lot of weird, semi-compliant poses – going down into semi-crouched positions, muscles obviously tensed. That drew a lot of attention from the bad guy(s), and very possibly will get you shot. The student in the scenario thought they were being compliant “enough” while trying to remain primed to act, but to an observer, they very clearly were not being fully compliant. At the very least, YOU are going to be the guy they “worry about” or “keep an eye on” – this isn’t going to help you! You want to be the person who is 100% compliant, to the point where they forget about you. Here is an unfortunate example of how non-compliance can get you killed, as a hotel manager found out the hard way recently:


“They believe the suspects walked into the hotel and demanded money. Police said when the manager refused to comply he was shot in the head. “

One of the other big takeaways I got from Dr Aprill’s psychological coursework was the concept of “know your temperament“ – it has been set in stone since you were 3 to 5 years old. In this context, we use temperament’s clinical definition – a fixed, pervasive, persistent reflection of your wiring; your natural pre-dispostion. The concept that you might act differently depending on what you are carrying or equipped with that day just doesn’t happen. Align yourself with your temperament (who you are). Equip yourself to your temperament, physically and psychologically. Don’t kid yourself and say “I’ll just be a good witness” if your past history and your instincts tell you that you are the type to “get involved”. If you are going to find your feet taking you towards the gunfire during some sort of active killer event, perhaps that J-Frame you threw in your pocket before leaving the house wasn’t be best choice! I found it especially interesting when Dr. Aprill relayed a story about a woman at the Rogers school who said (and I’m probably very loosely paraphrasing), “you know, all the gun stuff, I get it… but I just can’t do it. When I’m faced with any kind of danger, I just want to run away.” He said, “You know what? That is FINE. If she makes a commitment to recognizing danger early and running away from it, that is probably going to work out for her.   She has aligned her strategy with who she is.”   There is a podcast on Ballistic Radio where he talks about this topic – give it a listen. Greg Ellifritz also just wrote about this in his article, Born to Intervene?, on his excellent ActiveResponseTraining.net blog.

A half day of lecture was devoted to Dr. Aprill’s fantastic presentation on violent criminal actors, how they select their victims, and how we can actively work to de-select ourselves. You can listen to this Ballistic Radio podcast (a different episode – he’s a popular guest) to hear an overview of this topic, but you owe it to yourself to get this straight from the source if at all possible.

Tom Givens ran the students through increasingly difficult shooting challenges during the range/live fire portions of the class, interjecting tips, observations of our performances in relation stress, and helpful perspectives in regards to mindset at key times in unique ways that only Tom can deliver. Everyone in the class came in as accomplished shooters, and it was interesting, to say the least, to see firsthand how added stressors degrade shooting performance, and how subtle management techniques for that stress can help bring performance back up.

Overall, I found the class to be a fantastic learning experience, and it was very interesting to take a class filled with high-level practitioners. I think we all, as students, learned a lot from each other in addition to what we learned from this cadre of elite instructors.


Polite Society 2014 – Southnarc Force on Force AAR

The past 2 years, I have had the opportunity to participate in SouthNarc’s (Craig Douglas) “Live Scenario-Based Experiential Learning Clinic”, which is basically a force-on-force exercise using Simunition FX, live role players, and ambiguous situations that test the participants’ tactics and decision making skills under extreme stress.  The exercise is limited to 12 participants, who are kept separate from the action area, and send in to the exercise individually, such that the exercise is reset and repeated for each participant.  This year’s scenario equipped the participant with a G17 Simunition gun (holstered and concealed), and very basic instructions to help Dr. Aprill, who has injured his ankle, to the airport with his bag.  *ACTION!*

After reaching center of room 10-15 yds into room and helping Dr. Aprill towards the door, frantic woman runs in towards the participant, screaming, “you’ve got to help me, he’s trying to kill me”.  She has a pair of large, stabby scissors in her hand, although she is holding them in a neutral, non-threatening manner, palms-out at or above her shoulders.  After giving participant time to interact with her for approximately 20-30 seconds, a 2nd man runs into room WITH A GUN after the woman.  He is holding a BADGE in his other hand and wearing casual/plain clothes (not in uniform) but does not otherwise identify himself as LEO (law enforcement officer).

The results of this scenario were, to be frank, highly concerning:

  • 10 out of 12 participants either shot the officer, were shot by the officer, or both.  Staggeringly, more than a few of the participants SAW THE BADGE and chose to engage in a standoff with the officer (and eventually get shot) or engage him with gunfire out of a mistrust that he was actually law enforcement.
  • Multiple participants failed to notice the weapon in the female role player’s hand
  • 1 participant put 3 rounds into the woman’s chest, even after she dropped the scissors as instructed, because she didn’t obey subsequent commands to get on the ground.  Does anyone have any illusions about deadly force justification still being present after she’s dropped the weapon?
  • 1 participant had a shooter-induced malfunction after a single shot and was unable to clear the resulting double feed (support hand thumb behind the slide caused a double feed after the first shot).
  • 1 participant admitted to ‘freezing’ during debrief once the shooting started.
  • Several participants, holding a projectile weapon, got progressively closer to the female threat, holding a sharp stabby weapon, when she didn’t immediately obey commands to drop the scissors.  The participants who engaged in this behavior were, in all cases, completely unaware that they did it, even during debrief.   (We have found this type of subconscious behavior to be relatively common in KR Training AT-2 and AT-7 Force-on-Force classes.)
  • None of the other participants utilized available cover/concealment within the room before the second role player came into the room.  Only one or two eventually attempted to use cover once the shooting started.
  • More than one participant, myself included, held onto Dr. Aprill’s bag far longer than necessary or that the circumstances would dictate.  I suppose I could use a large bag to help fend off an edged weapon attack, but my firearm might be more effective, and I certainly wasn’t toting around the bag with that intent in mind.

If you shoot someone that you cannot clearly dictate met the AOJ standards (Ability-Opportunity-Jeopardy), you are very likely going to go to jail for a long, long time.  If you shoot at a law enforcement officer who was displaying a badge at the time you shot him, you are going to go to jail for a long, long, time.  Getting shot to death by law enforcement isn’t much of a win, either, is it?   This was a scenario with a verbal, non-shooting solution, but almost everyone seems to have tried their damnedest to find a shooting solution, and apply the hammer to something that wasn’t a nail.

Think about the types of participants that the Polite Society Conference attracts – self defense and firearms trainers as well as concealed carry practitioners who are serious enough to make a 3 or 4 day trip to “Mogadishu on the Mississippi” (Memphis, TN) for 3 straight days of lectures (it is about as far as you can possibly get from a 3 day fantasy gun-fighting camp with a high round count). These aren’t the types of practitioners who got their CHL and took a class or two; these are folks who are very serious about concealed carry and armed self-defense.  How much experience do YOU have making these kinds of decisions under extreme duress?  Well-structured Force-on-Force exercises allow you to test and practice your decision making in an environment where the worst that can happen is you get a few welts and a bruised ego, instead of facing death, imprisonment, or (at best) the terrible burden of shooting or killing someone inappropriately.

Here’s a video of my rep in this year’s scenario from Tyler C.


Even being the only clear “winner” of the scenario this year, there is still plenty to critique and learn from my experience.  On the plus side, I immediately recognized the scissors in her hand when she came in, I instructed her to take cover, and I took cover myself before the second party entered the room.  I clearly remember seeing “GUN…BADGE” when the plainclothes officer entered.  On the potentially negative side, I firmly believed that I was “hand on gun” when dealing with the female role player, due to the scissors in her hand, but the video clearly shows my hand hovering in the vicinity of my weapon without actually having my hand on it.  Also, why the heck was I carrying that bag around so long?

You will likely be VERY surprised about what you imaged, didn’t see, didn’t hear, and can’t remember about the incident after it happens.  Tunnel vision, auditory exclusion, freezing up, the perceived slowing of time… I’ve personally experienced some of these myself, and seen others experience all of these effects, during this type of scenario-based training.  It is absolutely invaluable as a tool to determine where your mindset and/or training needs work, and to learn what your own stress reaction is going to be when the adrenaline dump hits you.  In most cases, FoF is as close as you can get to the real thing without having to actually endure it.  I credit my success in this particular scenario with my past experience in last year’s Southnarc scenario (which WAS a problem that had to be solved by shooting) and my experience in KR Training’s excellent AT-2, AT-5, and AT-7 classes, and I find that my decision-making under pressure seems to improve as I get more and more of this type of experience under my belt.  The next time these classes become available, take advantage of the opportunity.

Dave Reichek
KR Training Alumni and Assistant Instructor


(Karl adds:  Dave’s observations match up with my own, from the years I ran force on force scenarios at the conference, and from observations in my own classes.  There’s a gap between being able to think through a scenario and talk about what you would do, and actually do the right thing when it’s happening in real time.  In my experience, FoF training does a much better job of teaching those skills than live fire training, which is why we offer it in our program.)

AAR – Paul Howe “Civilian Response to Active Shooter” course

I recently attended the CSAT Civilian Response to Active Shooter course, taught by Paul Howe and his assistant Nick, at the CSAT facility in Nacogdoches, Texas.
The 3 day course taught the core skills necessary to correctly identify and neutralize active shooter threats, provide life-saving medical aid, and perhaps most importantly, link up with arriving police.  A preview of the content of the course is available as a 2 hour video from Panteao Productions.

Completion of a minimum of 16 hours of pistol training from a reputable school is recommended. We were fortunate that all 9 of the students in class had considerably more training than the minimum, including many students who had taken other courses from CSAT.  Three gun skills were essential for the course: ability to shoot accurately (3″ target) at 7 yards, ability to hit an IPSC A-Zone sized steel target at 50-75 yards, and the ability to handle a gun safely in a 360 degree environment. That 3rd skill included constant muzzle direction and trigger finger awareness.  Familiarity with use of a tourniquet was also important.  It was a real pleasure to discover that everyone in class had all the necessary skills. That allowed us to move quickly through the part of the course where the instructors verified we were ready for the core material.

The core material was security, medical and communications, in that order.  More specifically, starting in a vehicle outside the building, exiting the vehicle, entering the building, locating the shooter, rendering medical aid, calling 911, and finally, managing the initial contact with responding officers.

Competition shooters, including IDPA competitors, know the exact course of fire in advance, and have opportunity to rehearse their actions, so they can be executed at high speed when the buzzer goes off.  In the real world, maybe the event will occur in a place where you know the floor plan, and maybe it will happen at a location you are visiting for the first time.  Even if you know the floor plan, as soon as shots are fired, people will be moving.  It’s not possible to plan out every action in detail. Instead, a skill that can’t be learned from any form of competition, or shooting standard exercises with a timer, becomes essential: the ability to have a general plan, taking action toward that plan as quickly as you can assess what’s happening around you and act on it.  It’s a skill that quite honestly most “trained” people who aren’t in first responder jobs get very little practice at, but it’s far more important than shaving a few more tenths off a speed reload, or any other gunhandling/shooting skill.

This course did an excellent job of developing that skill, by taking a crawl/walk/run approach, starting slowly with dry fire drills and small scenarios, with emphasis on having students do the right things, in the right sequence, in the right way. No time pressure was directly applied by the instructors anytime during the course. The goal was to work the problem as quickly as you could, but it was more important to identify the correct “next step” and execute it properly than to make some specific par time.  Skill was built by presenting us with increasingly more complex problems – more rooms, more threats, injuries to others needing attention, injuries to self requiring application of a tourniquet and re-engagement of targets, clearing of malfunctions and reloads one-handed.  The course emphasis the use of a bailout bag that serves as holster, mag pouch, medical kit and storage for other supplies.

The targets used were photographic – an array of hostage rescue head shot images, offering everything from a full head to a 25% head (one eye) on a single 24″ wide target. We were encouraged to take the hardest shot we thought we could make, anytime that target was presented.  A variety of photographic full body targets were used, with many different overlays used on the target’s hands, requiring us to spend a split second identifying the target before shooting. Instructors provided responses, should we choose to give verbal commands or ask questions of the targets.  Steel targets were used for long shots, replicating a situation where a 50-75 yard shot down a hallway might be required.


The facilities and the instructors were excellent.   We were encouraged to ask questions often, and there were many good questions from students throughout the course.  Lost in the political debate over arming teachers, between the gun rights absolutists, insisting that no skills training is needed, and the gun control pessimists, insisting that armed citizens are simply incapable of success against an active shooter, is this course, which defines a baseline level of mechanical skills (gunhandling, shooting and medical), and teaches students the tactics and mental process necessary to save lives.

CSAT only offers this course a few times a year. I highly recommend it, with the strong recommendation that anyone planning to attend should put in some prep time before class day, making sure you can hit the small targets (and long targets) with your pistol, that you can self-apply a tourniquet one handed, and can move indoors with your gun in a safe muzzle-down position (CSAT recommends the “Sul” position).

For more information: visit the CSAT website.

3 Rules, not 4. Maybe just 2 rules.

On several of the blogs I read, people often refer to the “4 rules of gun safety” and quote the rules defined by Jeff Cooper of Gunsite. They are

  1. All guns are always loaded!
  2. Never let the muzzle cover anything you are not willing to destroy!
  3. Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on target!
  4. Always be sure of your target!

The NRA has a better set of rules, which are

  1. ALWAYS keep the gun pointed in a safe direction
  2. ALWAYS keep your finger off the trigger until ready to shoot
  3. ALWAYS keep the gun unloaded until ready to use

Why are the NRA rules better? The NRA rules are direct instructions for people to follow, stated as positive absolutes.  They tell you what you _should_ do, in priority order, no less.  That’s why the first rule about “safe direction” is first.  If you screw up and violate NRA rules 2 and 3, if you obeyed rule 1, nothing of consequence, except for your pride, is damaged or destroyed.  When I teach NRA Rule 1, I go into detail about what “safe direction” actually means, because my observation is that a lot of gun owners fail to obey NRA Rule #1 because they don’t understand the word “ALWAYS” and they don’t understand “safe direction”.

In order for a direction to be safe you have to know what’s along the path your bullet will travel, and where it will stop.  That requires more thought than “up in the air” or “down at the ground” or “toward that wall”.  Off the range what you really have to do is determine the safest available direction, and that can change as people, animals and vehicles are in motion.

Cooper’s rule #1 “All guns are always loaded”  sounds good in a vague way, but says nothing.  Is it direction to always keep my gun loaded? or direction to handle my gun as if it were loaded? If it’s the latter, what’s the first thing I should do, if I”m going to handle my gun as if it were loaded?  That would be… ALWAYS point it in a safe direction which is NRA Rule #1.  So Cooper’s Rule #1 says nothing explicitly useful and can be scratched off the list.

Cooper’s rule #2 is “Never let the muzzle cover anything you are not willing to destroy” – which is a negative way of saying “ALWAYS keep the gun pointed in a safe direction”.  The adult learning people claim that you should always teach what you want students to do, not the opposite, so I’ll go with the NRA’s version.

Cooper’s rule #3 is “Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on target!” which is basically the same as NRA Rule #2 “ALWAYS keep your finger off the trigger until ready to shoot”. Again, I like the NRA’s rule better, because I do not always need my sights on target to shoot – such as in a retention or extreme close quarters situation. I just need to be ready for the gun to fire.

Cooper rule #4 is “Always be sure of your target!” which repeats the information in Cooper’s Rule #2 and NRA Rule #1.   If you weren’t sure of your target when you followed NRA rule #1 and pointed your gun in a safe direction, then the direction wasn’t safe, was it? Either you understand what a safe direction is, and you continually adjust your muzzle direction as needed, or you don’t, in which case you need to put the gun down until you learn what a safe direction is.  You should have been “sure of your target” back at rule #1 or at Cooper’s rule #2.

NRA Rule #3 is “ALWAYS keep the gun unloaded until ready to use.”.  Do we need this rule?  If we follow NRA Rules 1 and 2, or Cooper rules 2, 3 and 4, at all times, guns will always be pointed in safe directions with fingers off triggers, so there won’t be any negligent discharges.  I tell my students there are two categories of guns: those you are “using” for self-defense, whether they be readily accessible at home or “on or about your person” and all those other guns you have for other reasons: recreation, competition, hunting, collecting, etc.  Keeping all those non-self-defense guns unloaded causes no harm, and may prevent someone incapable of following the first 2 NRA rules from having a negligent discharge.

Cooper supposedly put “All Guns are Always Loaded” as his rule #1 because the #1 mistake people make handling guns is to violate all the other rules under the excuse that “it’s unloaded”. Cooper’s solution was to add a rule and place it first to reinforce that point.  I suggest that perhaps an alternative solution is to just use 2 rules – muzzle and trigger, because there are still gun owners out there (nevermind TV actors and actresses, and anti-gun politicians) who find it hard to follow 3 rules, much less 4, all the time.

No Second Place Winner

Col. Jeff Cooper once wrote that “owning a gun doesn’t make you armed any more than owning a guitar makes you a musician”.

From Wyatt Earp to Rex Applegate to Charles Askins to Bill Jordan to Jim Cirillo to Jeff Cooper to Tom Givens — the message is consistent:  under stress you will do what you’ve trained and practiced to do.
There’s more than 100 years of history, writing and study on the topic of fighting with handguns. Those that study it seriously all come to the same conclusions. That might be important.

Your right to carry and even just having a gun isn’t going to save your life in a real situation.   Either you have trained and practiced realistically with the gear you carry, or you haven’t.
Here’s a simple test:  set up one IDPA target at 5 yards.  Draw from concealment and fire 5 rounds, in 5 seconds, make a group no bigger than 5″.  5 in 5 in 5 at 5.  Bonus points if you can do it in low light.

It’s not about lowering the standards to make it cheaper to get a license, finding ways to avoid taking training classes, or finding the smallest, lightest, feeblest, hard-to-shoot carry gun you can find.
None of things will keep you alive.  A shooting situation is a pass/fail test.  Just as with all other types of tests, those that prepare usually out score those that do not.

The right to carry is worthless if you don’t have the skill and equipment to back it up.  As the great Texas lawman and real world gunfighter Bill Jordan famously observed, there is no second place winner.